Nearly 13 years ago my co-authors and I won Best Paper at SOSP for the peer-to-peer anti-entropy protocol that nodes in a LOCKSS network use to detect and repair damage to their contents. The award was for showing a P2P network that failed gradually and gracefully under attack from a very powerful adversary. Its use of proof-of-work under time constraints is related to ideas underlying blockchains.
The paper was based on a series of simulations of 1000-node networks, so we had to implement both sides, defence and attack. In our design discussions we explicitly switched between wearing white and black hats; we probably spent more time on the dark side. This meant that we ended up with a very explicit and very pessimistic threat model, which was very helpful in driving the design
The decentralized Web will be attacked, in non-obvious ways. Who would have thought that IP's strength, the end-to-end model, would also bring one of its biggest problems, pervasive surveillance? Or that advertising would be the death of Tim Berners-Lee's Web?
I'd like to challenge the panelists to follow our example, and to role-play wearing black hats in two scenarios:
- Scenario 1. We are the NSA. We have an enormous budget, no effective oversight, taps into all the major fiber links, and a good supply of zero-days. How do we collect everyone's history of browsing the decentralized Web? (I guarantee there is a team at NSA/GCHQ asking this question).
- Scenario 2. We are the Chinese government. We have an enormous budget, an enormous workforce, a good supply of zero-days, total control over our country's servers and its connections to the outside world. How do we upgrade the Great Firewall of China to handle the decentralized Web, and how do we censor our citizens use of it? (I guarantee there is a team in China asking these questions).
the block chain is controlled by Chinese miners, just two of whom control more than 50% of the hash power. At a recent conference over 95% of hashing power was controlled by a handful of guys sitting on a single stage.One necessary design goal for networks such as Bitcoin is that the protocol be incentive-compatible, or as Ittay Eyal and Emin Gun Sirer express it:
the best strategy of a rational minority pool is to be honest, and a minority of colluding miners cannot earn disproportionate benefits by deviating from the protocolThey show that the Bitcoin protocol was, and still is, not incentive-compatible. More recently, Sirer and others have shown that the Distributed Autonomous Organization based on Ethereum isn't incentive-compatible either. Even if these protocols were, increasing returns to scale would drive centralization and thus ensure attacks with massive resources, whether from governments, large corporations. And lets not forget that attacks can be mounted using botnets.
Massive resources enable Sybil attacks. The $1M attack CMU mounted in 2014 against the Tor network used both traffic confirmation and Sybil attacks:
The particular confirmation attack they used was an active attack where the relay on one end injects a signal into the Tor protocol headers, and then the relay on the other end reads the signal. These attacking relays were stable enough to get the HSDir ("suitable for hidden service directory") and Guard ("suitable for being an entry guard") consensus flags. Then they injected the signal whenever they were used as a hidden service directory, and looked for an injected signal whenever they were used as an entry guard.Traffic confirmation attacks don't need to inject signals, they can be based on statistical correlation. Correlations in the time domain are particularly hard for interactive services, such as Tor and the decentralized Web, to disguise.
Then the second class of attack they used, in conjunction with their traffic confirmation attack, was a standard Sybil attack — they signed up around 115 fast non-exit relays, all running on 126.96.36.199/16 or 188.8.131.52/16. Together these relays summed to about 6.4% of the Guard capacity in the network. Then, in part because of our current guard rotation parameters, these relays became entry guards for a significant chunk of users over their five months of operation.Sybil attacks are very hard for truly decentralized networks to defend against, since no-one is in a position to do what the Tor project did to CMU's Sybils:
1) Removed the attacking relays from the network.Richard Chirgwin at The Register reports on Philip Winter et al's Identifying and characterizing Sybils in the Tor network. Their sybilhunter program found the following kinds of Sybils:
- Rewrite Sybils – these hijacked Bitcoin transactions by rewriting their Bitcoin addresses;
- Redirect Sybils – these also attacked Bitcoin users, by redirecting them to an impersonation site;
- FDCservers Sybils – associated with the CMU deanonymisation research later subpoenaed by the FBI;
- Botnets of Sybils – possibly misguided attempts to help drive up usage;
- Academic Sybils – they observed the Amazon EC2-hosted nodes operated by Biryukov, Pustogarov, and Weinmann for this 2013 paper; and
- The LizardNSA attack on Tor.
We believe the vulnerabilities and measurability limitations of onion routing may stem from an attempt to achieve an impossible set of goals and to defend an ultimately indefensible position. Current tools offer a general-purpose, unconstrained, and individualistic form of anonymous Internet access. However, there are many ways for unconstrained, individualistic uses of the Internet to be fingerprinted and tied to individual users. We suspect that the only way to achieve measurable and provable levels of anonymity, and to stake out a position defensible in the long term, is to develop more collective anonymity protocols and tools. It may be necessary to constrain the normally individualistic behaviors of participating nodes, the expectations of users, and possibly the set of applications and usage models to which these protocols and tools apply.They note:
Because anonymity protocols alone cannot address risks such as software exploits or accidental self-identification, the Dissent project also includes Nymix, a prototype operating system that hardens the user’s computing platform against such attacks.Getting to a shared view of the threats the decentralized Web is intended to combat before implementations are widely deployed is vital. The lack of such a view in the design of TCP/IP and the Web is the reason we're in the mess we're in. Unless the decentralized Web does a significantly better job handling the threats than the current one, there's no point in doing it. Without a "black hat" view during the design, there's no chance that it will do a better job.