Thursday, December 22, 2016

Walking Away From The Table

Last time we were buying a car, at the end of a long and frustrating process we finally decided that what we wanted was the bottom end of the range, with no options. The dealer told us that choice wasn't available in our market. We said "OK, call us if you ever find a car like that" and walked away. It was just over two weeks before we got the call. At the end of 2014 I wrote:
The discussions between libraries and major publishers about subscriptions have only rarely been actual negotiations. In almost all cases the libraries have been unwilling to walk away and the publishers have known this. This may be starting to change; Dutch libraries have walked away from the table with Elsevier.
Actually, negotiations continued and a year later John Bohannon reported for Science that a deal was concluded:
A standoff between Dutch universities and publishing giant Elsevier is finally over. After more than a year of negotiations — and a threat to boycott Elsevier's 2500 journals — a deal has been struck: For no additional charge beyond subscription fees, 30% of research published by Dutch researchers in Elsevier journals will be open access by 2018. ... The dispute involves a mandate announced in January 2014 by Sander Dekker, state secretary at the Ministry for Education, Culture and Science of the Netherlands. It requires that 60% of government-funded research papers should be free to the public by 2019, and 100% by 2024.
By being willing to walk away, the Dutch achieved a partial victory against Elsevier's defining away of double-dipping, their insistance that author processing charges were in addition to subscriptions not instead of subscriptions. This is a preview of the battle over the EU's 2020 open access mandate.

The UK has just concluded negotiations, and a major German consortium is in the midst of them. Below the fold, some commentary on their different approaches.

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Reference Rot Is Worse Than You Think

At the Fall CNI Martin Klein presented a new paper from LANL and the University of Edinburgh, Scholarly Context Adrift: Three out of Four URI References Lead to Changed Content. Shawn Jones, Klein and the co-authors followed on from the earlier work on web-at-large citations from academic papers in Scholarly Context Not Found: One in Five Articles Suffers from Reference Rot, which found:
one out of five STM articles suffering from reference rot, meaning it is impossible to revisit the web context that surrounds them some time after their publication. When only considering STM articles that contain references to web resources, this fraction increases to seven out of ten.
Reference rot comes in two forms:
  • Link rot: The resource identified by a URI vanishes from the web. As a result, a URI reference to the resource ceases to provide access to referenced content.
  • Content drift: The resource identified by a URI changes over time. The resource’s content evolves and can change to such an extent that it ceases to be representative of the content that was originally referenced.
The British Library's Andy Jackson analyzed the UK Web Archive and found:
I expected the rot rate to be high, but I was shocked by how quickly link rot and content drift come to dominate the scene. 50% of the content is lost after just one year, with more being lost each subsequent year. However, it’s worth noting that the loss rate is not maintained at 50%/year. If it was, the loss rate after two years would be 75% rather than 60%. This indicates there are some islands of stability, and that any broad ‘average lifetime’ for web resources is likely to be a little misleading.
Clearly, the problem is very serious. Below the fold, details on just how serious and discussion of a proposed mitigation.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

The Medium-Term Prospects for Long-Term Storage Systems

Back in May I posted The Future of Storage, a brief talk written for a DARPA workshop of the same name. The participants were experts in one or another area of storage technology, so the talk left out a lot of background that a more general audience would have needed. Below the fold, I try to cover the same ground but with this background included, which makes for a long post.

This is an enhanced version of a journal article that has been accepted for publication in Library Hi Tech, with images that didn't meet the journal's criteria, and additional material reflecting developments since submission. Storage technology evolution can't be slowed down to the pace of peer review.

Thursday, December 1, 2016

BITAG on the IoT

The Broadband Internet Technical Advisory Group, an ISP industry group, has published a technical working group report entitled Internet of Things (IoT) Security and Privacy Recommendations. It's a 43-page PDF including a 6-page executive summary. The report makes a set of recommendations for IoT device manufacturers:
In many cases, straightforward changes to device development, distribution, and maintenance processes can prevent the distribution of IoT devices that suffer from significant security and privacy issues. BITAG believes the recommendations outlined in this report may help to dramatically improve the security and privacy of IoT devices and minimize the costs associated with collateral damage. In addition, unless the IoT device sector—the sector of the industry that manufactures and distributes these devices—improves device security and privacy, consumer backlash may impede the growth of the IoT marketplace and ultimately limit the promise that IoT holds.
Although the report is right that following its recommendations would "prevent the distribution of IoT devices that suffer from significant security and privacy issues" there are good reasons why this will not happen, and why even if it did the problem would persist. The Department of Homeland Security has a similar set of suggestions, and so does the Internet Society, both with the same issues. Below the fold I explain, and point out something rather odd about the BITAG report. I start from an excellent recent talk.